Video showing the collapse of the Pu’u ‘O ‘o crater floor on March 5. The video starts at 4 am and ends at 11 pm. The floor of the crater dropped about 115 meters (377 ft) in just a few hours.
TOP: The Cerro Ballena whale graveyard, sitting next to the Pan-Ameircan Highway. Credit: Nick Pyenson.
BOTTOM: La Familia–two adult whales and a calf. Credit: Nick Pyenson
This Pachyrhinosaurus can go to the head of its class.
It’s not often, after all, that you can see and touch a skull that’s about the size of a Smart Car, about 70 million years old and looks like a mutant blend of a triceratops and giant parrot.
University of Calgary paleontologist Darla Zelenitsky first made the mammoth find in Alberta’s Badlands, then revealed it to the world Thursday.
"It almost looks like some sort of mythical beast," Zelenitsky said. "Because it is so big and (mature), it makes for a very strange-looking individual."
This isn’t the first Pachyrhinosaurus discovery — that came in the mid-20th century — and there have been other notable such finds since then in Canada’s Alberta province and Alaska.
But what makes this one unique is how well preserved the skull is (75% to 80% complete, which is remarkable for a dinosaur), the fact it’s from an older Pachyrhinosaurus (therefore more can be learned from it than a younger version), and, of course, its immense size.
Other meteoritic diamonds apparently hail from deep space. In 1987, a team of researchers headed by Edward Anders and Roy Lewis of the University of Chicago reported the discovery of meteorite-embedded diamonds so miniscule that trillions could fit on the head of a pin. Unlike the Smithsonian diamonds, these microscopic crystals contain an isotopic mixture of xenon gas not found on Earth. “It seems necessary to invoke an extra-solar origin for the diamond,” the scientists concluded in a paper published in Nature, indicating a birth outside our solar system.
Indeed, the team proposed that the lucent crystals formed in the atmosphere of a “red giant” or dying star before it collapsed and exploded billions of years ago. The supernova would have sent the diamond-studded material far out into space, where in the fullness of time some pieces eventually fell to Earth. If this scenario is correct, the researchers said, then interstellar dust may be peppered with tiny diamonds.
"As climate scientists, we share the prevailing view in our community that human-induced global warming is happening and that, without mitigating measures, the Earth will continue to warm over the next century with serious consequences. But we consider it unlikely that those consequences will include more frigid winters.
Distinguishing between different kinds of extreme weather events is important because the risks of different kinds of events are affected by climate change in different ways. For example, a rise in global mean temperature will almost certainly lead to an increase in the incidence of record high temperatures. Global warming also leads to increases in atmospheric water vapor, which increases the likelihood of heavier rainfall events that may cause flooding. Rising temperatures over land lead to increased evaporation, which renders crops more susceptible to drought. As the atmosphere and oceans warm, sea water expands and glaciers and ice sheets melt. In response, global sea level rises, increasing the threat of coastal inundation during storms.”
Letter written by 5 of today’s leading climate scientists published in today’s edition of the journal Science, titled “Global Warming and This Winter’s Cold Weather,” that aims to cut through the flood of overwrought assertions about recent Northern Hemisphere winter weather in the context of global warming.